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Sunday, November 19, 2017

Internet Quotes About The European Children's Game "Who's Afraid Of The Black Man"/"Beware The Black Man"

Edited by Azizi Powell

Revised November 19, 2017 8:57 AM ET

This pancocojams post presents a compilation of internet quotes that I've found about the European children's game "Who's Afraid Of The Black Man". In some quotes this game is called "Beware The Black Man".

In the online quotes that I've found (as of November 18, 2017) the European countries where children have played or still play the game "Who's Afraid Of The Black Man"/"Beware The Black Man" are Germany, Slovenia, Switzerland, Finland, and, Austria.

The content of this post is presented to raise awareness of this game for socio-cultural purposes and NOT for recreational purposes as I fully admit that I would prefer that children not play this game.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post.

****
QUOTES ABOUT THE EUROPEAN CHILDREN'S GAME "WHO'S AFRAID OF THE BLACK MAN"/"BEWARE THE BLACK MAN"
Pancocojams Editor's Note:
Except for the first two examples, these quotes are given in no particular order. A few editorial comments are added after some of these quotes and numbers have been assigned to these quotes for referencing purposes. With the exception of the first two examples, I retrieved all of these examples from the internet on November 18, 2017.

Example #1:
From https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pcfPVj5qR1E Afro.Germany – Being black and German | DW Documentary
DW Documentary, Published on Mar 29, 2017

Black and German: news anchor Jana Pareigis has spent her entire life being asked about her skin color. What is it like to be black in Germany? What needs to change?

“Where are you from?” Afro-German journalist Jana Pareigis has heard that question since her early childhood. And she’s not alone. Black people have been living in Germany for around 400 years, and today there are an estimated one million Germans with dark skin. But they still get asked the latently racist question, "Where are you from?”

Jana Pareigis is familiar with the undercurrents of racism in the western world. When she was a child, the Afro-German TV presenter also thought her skin color was a disadvantage. "When I was young, I wanted to be white,” she says.

Parageis takes us on a trip through Germany from its colonial past up to the present day, visiting other dark-skinned Germans to talk about their experiences. They include rapper Samy Deluxe, pro footballer Gerald Asamoah and Theodor Michael, who lived as a black man in the Third Reich. They talk about what it’s like to be black in Germany.”
-snip-
Quote at 2:01-2:26 of this video:
Jana Pareigis: "I mean I always had a lot of friends. I remember in kindergarten that um we played these funny games like “Who’s Afraid Of The Black Man” and “Ten Little Negroes” it’s called in German. So um I remember sometimes they run after me and said “Jana Africana” it’s something like “Jana is an African. Jana is an African". And the problem is that “African” meant something bad.
-snip-
This quote from this documentary reminded me of the first time that I had read about the game "Who's Afraid Of The Black Man" (in 2008; Read Example #2 below). This documentary's quote about that game motivated me to search for additional online mentions of this game and then publish this pancocojams compilation.

Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2017/11/youtube-comments-about-being-black-in.html for Part I of a two part pancocojams series that presents comments from the discussion thread for the above mentioned YouTube video and discussion threads for two other YouTube videos about growing up Black in Germany. The link for Part II of that series is given in that post. Part II presents selected comments from the same three YouTube videos' discussion threads about being a Black adult in Germany or in certain other European nations.

****
Example #2
From https://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=123578
[given "as is" with spelling errors]

a) Subject: Folklore: The Devil The Color Black
From: Azizi
Date: 12 Sep 09 - 09:57 AM

The purpose of this thread is to explore the old belief that the devil and demons were the color black.

I'm interested in any recollections people may have of any supersitions, proverbs, folk songs, or children's rhymes, and children's games that refer to the devil, demons, witches being black (with no disrespect intended for those who are Wicca).

I'm also interested in any references to religious songs,folk songs, proverbs, or children's rhymes of the color white being good (pure) and black being evil (impure).

The impetus for my [current] research of this subject is a 2008 query that I found last night on an anti-rascist parents blog. The query was from an American mother living in Germany who requested information about a German children's game similar to tag called "Who's Afraid Of The Black Man". I'll post that query in my next post to this thread, and explain how that query led me to this subject.

I'll also provide a number of hyperlinks and excerpts from online sources that I have found on this subject. And of course, I hope that others will also do so.

By the way, I used Mudcat's search engine to try to identify any previous discussion thread on this subject, but didn't find any. If there is such a thread (or threads, or posts withing others threads) I would appreciate someone identifying them.

Thanks in advance for your participation in this thread.

**
b) Subject: RE: Folklore: The Devil The Color Black
From: Azizi
Date: 12 Sep 09 - 10:07 AM

Here is the query that I referred to in my first post to this thread:

"# 15. Sue armstrong wrote:

I live in Germany and was horrified to hear that my son was playing an (apparently common game ) in his gym class called "who's afraid of the black man?"

I told the teacher that I personally found the words offensive and that coloured children in the class might also feel really bizarre singing these words.

Her reply was that she had explained to all the class beforehand that the song was about a chimneysweep and none of the kids had a problem with it and were completely happy.

She basically told me I was overreacting and making an racial issue where there wasnt one.

I am lost for words. I have a meeting with her next week to discuss further.

I am not quite sure though how to get through to her as she obviously does not see a problem there.

I talked to my son who is asian about it and he understood what she had said and was okay with playing the game, but definitely understood how some might find it offensive.

What would you advise me to say to the teacher?"

Posted 18 Sep 2008 at 5:55 am

http://www.antiracistparent.com/2008/07/14/ask-arp-is-it-wrong-to-sing-this-childrens-rhyme/*
Anti-Racist Parent "Ask ARP: Is it wrong to sing this children's rhyme?"

-snip-

There are no responses to this query to date (though I probably will attempt a response summarizing my theory that "the black man" in this children's game originally was the devil, and then likely morphed to refer to a dark skinned person, perhaps a "gypsy"."

**
c) Subject: RE: Folklore: The Devil The Color Black
From: Azizi
Date: 12 Sep 09 - 10:21 AM

Here is what I posted last night in the Wikipedia talk section about the children's game "Tag" (with several additions of omitted words):

"As an African American I have concerns about the game "Who's afraid of the Black man" even if it really was/is about chimney sweeps.

I found another online mention of that game here: http://watchingamerica.com/News/17920/white-southerners-still-don%E2%80%99t-trust-obama/ about attitudes among some White Americans in the South about Obama winning the Presidential election Die Welt, Germany "White Southerners Still Don't Trust Obama"By Katja Ridderbusch' Translated By Ron Argentati' 19 January 2009

See this note at the end of the article (made because the reporter said that the interviewer still "was afraid of black men": ..."the German children's game "Wer hat Angst vor dem schwarzen Mann," or, "Who's afraid of the black man" is similar to the American kid's game "tag" where the object is to avoid being touched by the "monster." Misunderstood political correctness has also reached this facet of German culture and the adjective "black" is now increasingly being replaced by "wild," or "evil" although the original game had nothing to do with race."
-snip-

I then found a mention of "Whose afraid of black man" in this google book:

"Death bringing the plague (or should one say, the plague bringing death?) survives in the game of German and Swiss children "Who's afraid of the black man?" (Wer hat Angst vorm schwarzen Mann?) pg 14 The gender of death: a cultural history in art and literature - by Karl Siegfried Guthke" ? 1999 http://books.google.com/books?id=ml36rowcpTUC&pg=PA14&lpg=PA14&dq=german+children's+game+%22who's+afraid+of+the+black+man%22&sou
-snip-

A reader's review of this book also mentions that game by the "Who's afraid of the black man" name:

Ancient and Modern Britons: Volume One (Ancient & Modern Britons) by David Mac Ritchie (Paperback - March 15, 1991)
http://www.amazon.com/Ancient-Modern-Britons-One/product-reviews/0939222108/ref=dp_top_cm_cr_acr_txt?ie=UTF8&showViewpoints=1

-snip-

Finally, I found a reference to the game "Who's afraid of the black man" this google book: Twentieth-century theatre: a sourcebook By Richard Drain: http://books.google.com/books?id=WMwk3Wrn-14C&pg=PA186&lpg=PA186&dq=german+children's+game+%22who's+afraid+of+the+black+man%22&s

In the sentence I refer to that game is described as a "ridiculous party game" [for adults] p.186 To say: "should I go to the theatre today?"isn't the same thing as: "I've got to go to the theatre today. With an obligation to go to the theatre like that, the citizen concerned gives up of his free wil all those other stupid evening pastimes, like skittles, cards, pub politics, romantic rendezvous, not forgetting ridiculous party games that just waste your time like "Who's afraid of the black man?", "Tailor lend me your wife", and so on."

-snip-
I'd love to know more. The teacher's comments about the "Black man" [originally?] prreferring to chimney sweeps" is probably not correct, since chimney sweeps (who, because of their profession) were blackened by soot were thought to be good luck, particularly seeing them at the first of the new year, but maybe at other times.I've read that this is because in some European cultures chimney sweeps also carried baskets of shamrocks at certain times...Anyway, that superstition about it being good luck to see a chimney sweep at the first of the new year morphed into the belief that a dark haired man entering your door the first of the new year meant good luck etc. My point is that the chimney sweep origin doesn't wash with me (if you'll excuse that expression). I think the "black man" reference was probably a demon or a monster or the devil. But I have no sources for this.

Again, I hope that someone adds more information to this. And maybe one way of doing so is to mention the game and hopefully some German people or other people will add what they remember or know about it now-since it appears that it is still being played-but hopefully with a name change."
-This is the end of my quotes about that game on that Mudcat forum.-

*This anti-racistparent.com page no longer exists as of at least 11/18/2017. Another archived "antiracistparent.com" page with a similar title “Is it wrong to sing this rhyme?" refers to the children's game “brown girl in the ring” http://archive.li/B9uoe#selection-213.0-455.4.

I recall that I attempted to write a response to this blog post as noted above, but I had difficulty using the response feature on that website. I'm not sure if my response to that blog post was ever published and I don't have a copy of that response.

In addition to the theories that I mentioned above about the possible meaning of "black man" in that game- theories that I wasn't sure were correct then and still am not sure are correct now- the gist of my response was probably that I hoped children wouldn't play the game "Who's Afraid Of The Black Man". I hoped then and still hope now that instead of playing "Who's Afraid Of The Black Man", that game would be replaced by very similar tag games such as "What Time Is Is Mr. Wolf" because, whether "the black man" who is referenced in this game actually was or is meant to refer to a Black man. I continue to maintain this position because I believe that the game "Who's Afraid Of The Black Man"/"Beware The Black Man" could have negative psychological and sociological impact on children playing that game who are Black or dark skinned AND children who are White or other races.

** If a reader review of the 1884 book Ancient and Modern Britons: Volume One by David Mac Ritchie mentioned the children's game "Who's Afraid Of The Black Man", I can't find it now. It's possible that I extrapolated from reading some of these reviews that a game in which a "black man" chases children who aren't black until his touch turns them black may be a memorialization of a time when members of a dark skinned race conquered the lighter skinned people. Some of that history that is documented in the 1884 book Ancient And Modern Britons and noted in reader reviews such as this one:
"5.0 out of 5 starsThey will not teach this in your Rockefeller owned schools ...
ByWalt Lomaxon June 16, 2015
Format: Paperback|Verified Purchase
They will not teach this in your Rockefeller owned schools of North America. This is literature that scholars have for their private collection and know full well but further the reconstructed history of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Hegemony to enforce the Secret Treaty Verona, Doctrine of Discovery, Romanus Pontifex, Codes Noir etc etc. Bro David Macritchie is a Mason and was highly maligned and condemned by his peers for exposing that many Nobles from Western Asia (Western Europe) were Moors. The Danes, Dubh, Silures (Celts), Picts well all Moors and swarthy in complexion. Masonic Libraries have images of King George III with an Afro and he is clearly a Moor."
-snip-
I've added two similar readers' review of this book in the comment section of this post because they may provide an explanation as to why "black man" was used as the name of the character who chases people in the children's game "Who's Afraid Of The Black Man Game"/"Beware The Black Man".

****
Example #3 [This post includes a video of children playing with words in Slovene ? or German ?]
From https://abcwellbeing.wordpress.com/2013/01/24/whos-afraid-of-the-black-man/
January 24, 2013 · by sloveniaabcwellbeing · in Comenius, Games, School, Slovenia. ·
"Participants: 1 Black man and up to 30 children (or more)

Equipment: Outdoor (or larger gym); a playground with two lines

Instructions: We choose a hunter – the Black man. He stands on one of the lines and the other pupils stand on the other line which is on the other side of the playground. The Black man asks: >>Who’s afraid of the Black man?Nobody!And what if he comes?Then we’ll run away!<< and they run to the other side of the playground. The Black man runs to the other side, too, and while he runs, he tries to catch them. Whoever is caught becomes his assistant ad helps him to catch the others. All the players, including the Black man, can run only towards the other side of the playground. They’re not allowed to return to the start line. If they do, they have to join the Black man and become his assistants. The person, who is caught last, becomes the Black man in the next game." **** Example #4: [selected comments] From https://www.toytowngermany.com/forum/topic/95788-common-schoolyard-games-in-germany/ Common schoolyard games in Germany
a) Started by Showem, 1 May 2008
England
Posted 1 May 2008
"My sister-in-law is teaching German in Australia to primary school kids and wants to lighten up the curriculum by playing some games. She was wondering if there are any specific schoolyard games that kids in Germany would play? I couldn't think of anything in particular (having not really been around kids in school much) other than "Fang", the name for tag. Any other ideas or game names?"

**
b) blowwavedave
Isarvorstadt, Munich
Posted 5 May 2008
"Apparently there's one called "Beware of the black man"...seems to be pretty popular here, although don't quite think that's very PC..."

**
c) Freising
Posted 5 May 2008
..."Wer hat Angst vorm Bösen Wolf (instead of "Beware the black man")
The wolf stands on one side of a playing field, the sheep on the other
Wolf: "Wer hat Angst vorm Bösen Wolf."
Sheep: "Keiner!"
Wolf: "Und wenn er aber kommt?"
Sheep: "Dann laufen wir davon."

Now all the sheep try to reach the other side, and the wolf tries to catch as many as he can. Every caugth sheep turns into a wolf and has to help to catch the others in the next round."....

**
d) Guest meikeerik
Posted 9 May 2008
blowwavedave said:
Apparently there's one called "Beware of the black man"...seems to be pretty popular here, although don't quite think that's very PC...
I always thought "der schwarze Mann" was death incarnate or "the black death" or something like this. I'm pretty sure it's not referring to anyone's skin color, but maybe I'm just naive? :unsure:"

**
e) Freising
Posted 9 May 2008
"It´s the german bogeyman. He has been around for centuries in fairy books, ghost stories, etc. He might also be the devil. "Der schwarze Mann" is supposed to scare children, and he is probably more scary, when they dont exactly know what it is. I dont think that children would have had any reason to be especially scared of Africans...

On the other hand, I imagine that in the USA for example, a kid hearing the expression "the black man" might get a different idea about what it means."

****
Example #5
From https://books.google.com/books?id=tx4uDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT496&lpg=PT496&dq=who%27s+afraid+of+the+black+man+(children%27s+game)&source=bl&ots=a8DgregkCW&sig=nMJ2kGWzAPi0Qg9xrL1tKRcJGjg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiB4MPljMnXAhUDWCYKHY-pDOYQ6AEIaTAP#v=onepage&q&f=false Children Away from Home: A Sourcebook of Residential Treatment
Editors: James K. Whittaker, Albert E. Trieschman
Aldine, 1972; no page number given
“Lotspiech: At the risk of bringing up Jung’s name, do these games follow symbolic structure patterns, such as dream patterns follow?

Lorenz: “Some do. For instance, the game “Who’s Afraid of the Black Man”. It is one of those infectious games in which you put a group of children at one end of a long alley and one single child, who represents the black man, at the other end; then they must change places. The whole group has to get to the other side of the alley, and the black man has to touch one or more of them, who, in the process, are thus converted into black men. I have been told by the Austrian educator, Meister, that this game was a symbol of pox and that it was played as a sort of religious ceremony symbolizing infectious diseases.

Fremont-Smith: There get to be more and more black men?

Lonenz: Yes, until all of them are on the same side. The more children have become black, the less chance the rest of them have to escape being infected with blackness."

****
Example #6:
From https://anteroinen.tumblr.com/post/100176708095/whos-afraid-of-the-black-man Who’s afraid of the black man!?” “Kuka pelkää mustaa miestä?!”
"That was a game when I was a kid. I guess it still could be, but I don’t go into kindergartens, so I don’t know what kids play these days. There are two safe zones and the Black Man is in the middle, whenever the Black Man shouts “Who’s afraid of the Black Man?!” you must change the safe zone and the Black Man can make you another Black Man if they catch you. This repeats until everybody is a Black Man.

It was brought to my attention that some people think that the game is racist, and I get why they say that. (The Black Man is apparently originally Saint Jacob, who is traditionally thought to make the water get cold after the summer. Practically nobody knows this though.) But at the same time, I haven’t met anyone who actually thought the Black Man was an actual black person when playing the game either.

My Black Man was quite mannequin-like with a featureless face and black fumes coming out of it. Horrifying in retrospect, but it was fun enough as a kid. Others have described monsters from their nightmares too, others just thought of it as some regular person with black clothes like Batman and lastly a chimney sweeper is a common interpretation.

I guess a few reasons as to why people don’t quite so easily associate the rhyme actual Black people are:
Musta (lit. black) isn’t even that commonly used for black people. I’ve heard that tummaihoinen (lit. dark-skinned) is preferred, although I am not sure. Finnish racial politics are mostly skewed towards immigration, so actual racial monikers are rarer anyway.

Musta (lit. black) has the meaning of dirty and tarnished. If you say that “something is all black” in Finnish, you will mean it is covered in dust and soot and it needs to be cleaned. This goes a long way to explain the chimney sweeper interpretation of the rhyme.

Black people aren’t exactly plentiful in most places in Finland. If you live in the country side the ratio of all POC to ethnic Finns is probably without exaggeration as low as 1:200. In the cities the situation is different but I think 10% is probably too high an estimate. It is hard to say for sure, since the Finnish Census Bureau doesn’t keep racial statistics.

Obviously though, times change and people gather new ideas (and meet new people, more importantly for this case). What to me was a creepy but great game might ruin someone else’s day. So I went looking for what people have come up with:
“Who’s afraid of the octopus!?” (note: in Finnish octopus is mustekala or ink-fish)
“Who’s afraid of ice man?!”
“Who’s afraid of the forest troll?!”
“Who’s afraid of Groke?!”
Etc.
The octopus one is the most common, and kind of clever since it ends up using the stem from the word black innocuously. Though, I must say I don’t feel like a flubbery octopus is even remotely as threatening as the faceless, oozing obsidian mannequin I conjured up in my mind, so that one doesn’t really satisfy me. An actual monster like the Iceman or a Troll is much, MUCH better.

Opinions, followers?

“Who’s afraid of Slenderman?!”
-snip-
That blog post has no comments as of this date (November 18, 2017).
I added line spaces to enhance the readability of that blog post.

****
Example #7
From https://www.thelocal.ch/20111017/1496
Parents slam school over 'racist' game
Meritxell Mir
17 October 2011
"The parents of children who attend a primary school in Valais in southern Switzerland have complained over the use of a game entitled "Who’s afraid of the black man?", a hide-and-seek game they argue is “racist".

Hedi Putallaz, the parent of a pupil at a primary school in Monthey first became aware of the game, used by teachers in a gymnastics class, back in 2010.

He complained to the head of the school, who instructed the teachers to suggest that the game should instead be called "The wolf in sheep’s clothing", according to a report in the La Tribune de Genève daily.

But in a recent class, one of Putallaz’s son’s teachers again suggested playing the game entitled "Who’s afraid of the black man?"

According to the head of the school, the staff member concerned was an external coordinator, so he was not aware of the directive.

This was however the final straw for Putallaz and his wife, who is of afro-American origin. Now the couple want the educational authorities in Valais to issue an “official directive” to change the name of the game in all the schools in the canton, where it is still widely used.

“The Valais should not be considered the Mississipi of Switzerland,” say the parents in their request to the cantonal authorities because they consider the game to be a throwback to a racist past many blacks had to overcome.

“If the game was called ‘Are you afraid of the Jew’or ‘of the homosexual’, how would people react?” Putallaz said.

Jean-François Lovey, chief of the Department of Education of Valais, is yet to review, but he told La Tribune de Genève that he does not see the situation in the same way: “Honestly, it is a harmless game,” he said.

“The reasoning of these parents shows the extreme [political] correctness of our society,” Lovey added.

The Putallaz family is now awaiting a resolution from the educational authorities in Valais, but they have already warned that if their petition is not accepted, they will bring the issue in front of the European Court of Human Rights."
-snip-
I don't know what the outcome was for this formal complaint.

****
Example #8
From http://abneyj.blogspot.com/2012/09/whos-afraid-of-black-man.html
Jamiere Abney; Wednesday, September 19, 2012
Who's afraid of the black man...
Nobody?
"Apparently this is children's game here in Europe (Germany/Austria?). So here's the story...

Marvin, Jose, and I are driving on our way to a local school where we are teaching kids the fundamentals of flag football to build the relationship between the Seals football club and local youth. We were discussing drills or games we could have the kids do today during the hour or so we have with them. We talk about different versions of tag using the flags vs just taggin the individual or playing some type of capture the flag type game w/ the football being the "flag". Then Marvin explains to us a tag like game, similar to something I've played w/ a twist. It's call "Who's afraid of the black man". What makes it hilarious is that Marvin is a black guy from Austria and apparently growing up he often played this and would be the sole individual picked as the "tagger" since he was the fastest growing up. The basic rules of the game are as such:

The game begins w/ a single tagger ("the black man" or Marvin, an actual black man in this case lol)
The sole tagger tags others who then also become taggers or "black men"
The initial single tagger states: "who's afraid of the black man". The group responds: "Nobody" . The tagger then says: "What will you do if he chases you". And the group shouts: "run". And the game of tag begins.

Now this sounds somewhat horrible, but we all died laughing at the cheer irony that A) Marvin often was the initial tagger at his school and B) that this game was allowed to be played at all w/ a name and back/forth responses like that. Ahh good times w/ my roommates.”
Posted by Jamiere Abney at 1:23 PM
-snip-
A photograph of Jamiere Abney is placed next to his name attesting to the fact that this writer is a Black man.

****
Example #9
From http://schouweiler.ecole.lu/projets/comenius/schollyardgames/germany/game_1.htm Schoolyard Games from Germany
"
Who is afraid of the big "black man" (It's a synonym for one child.)
It's a game for 10 - 40 children. There is a field like a rectangular.The "black man" is standing on one side of the rectangular. The children are standing opposite of the man.The man calls:"Who is afraid of the big "black man ?" The children answer: "Nobody !" Than they run to that "black man" and try to pass him without being caught by him. The children who were caught by the man belonge to the team of the "black man" now. the last child who wasn't caught is the winner."

****
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Visitor comments are welcome.

Saturday, November 18, 2017

Two South Africa History.Org Articles & One Wikipedia Excerpt About The Black Consciousness Movement In South Africa

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post showcases excerpts from three online articles about the Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa.

The content of this post is presented for historical, socio-cultural, and educational purposes.

I quote online articles and excerpts of online articles to point out those articles to this blog's readers. I encourage you to read these entire articles.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post.

****
EXCERPTS ABOUT THE BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS MOVEMENT IN THE NATION OF SOUTH AFRICA
These excerpts are given in no particular order and are numbered for referencing purposes only.

Excerpt #1:
From http://www.sahistory.org.za/article/ideology-black-consciousness-movement The Ideology of the Black Consciousness Movement
"The emergence of the Black Consciousness movement that swept across the country in the 1970s can best be explained in the context of the events from 1960 onwards. After the Sharpeville massacre in 1960, the National Party (NP) government, which was formed in 1947, intensified its repression to curb widespread civil unrest. It did this by passing harsher laws, extending its use of torture, imprisonment and detentions without trial.

By the late 1960s, the government had jailed, banned or exiled the majority of the Liberation Movement’s leaders. In response to this, an intensified wave of tyranny, and a new set of organisations emerged. These organisations filled the vacuum created by the government’s suppression of the African National Congress (ANC) and the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) after the Sharpeville massacre in 1960. United loosely around a set of ideas described as “Black Consciousness,” these organisations helped to educate and organise Black people, particularly the youth. In fact, the eruption of the Black Consciousness Movement signalled an end to the quiescence that followed the banning of the black political movements.

The BCM urged a defiant rejection of apartheid, especially among Black workers and the youth. The South African Students Organisation (SASO) - an arm of the movement - was founded by Black students who refused to join NUSAS, another student led organization. At the same time, Black workers began to organise trade unions in defiance of anti-strike laws. In 1973, there were strikes throughout the nation, in cities like Durban. The collapse of Portuguese colonialism and the victories of the Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO) in Mozambique, and the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in Angola, stimulated further activity against apartheid. This culminated in the Soweto Uprising of 1976.

In 1976, student protests against Bantu education in Soweto, the Johannesburg informal settlement reserved for Africans, led to a two-year uprising that spread to Black townships across the country. The protests encompassed all Black grievances against the apartheid system, and in that period police reportedly killed many protesters, including schoolchildren. Workers then mobilised to protest police killings of innocent demonstrators.

In the following year, boycotts and unrest among students and teachers grew after Steve Biko, a leader of SASO, died in a Pretoria detention cell. He had been detained by the police under the Terrorism Act, and after the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) in the 1990s, it was revealed that he was tortured and killed by police. Within a month of Biko’s death, the government had detained scores of people and banned 18 Black Consciousness organizations, as well as two newspapers with a wide Black readership.

The Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa is synonymous with its founder, Biko. From the beginning of Biko’s political life until his death, he remains one of the indisputable icons of the Black struggle against apartheid. As leader of the movement, he instilled courage among the masses to fight an unjust system under the banner of Black Consciousness. Defining Black Consciousness is no mean task. However, a broad understanding of the concept can be made from Biko’s speeches and writings, including those of his close friends and other writers."

Last updated : 12-Sep-2016

This article was produced for South African History Online on 20-Mar-2011


****
Excerpt #2
From http://www.sahistory.org.za/article/black-consciousness-movement-south-africa The Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa
"The landscape of Black political activity in the 1960s was different that of the previous decade. The apartheid government had banished the Black resistance movements, in particular the ANC and the PAC. Black leaders, who were not imprisoned by the state, fled into exile. A barrage of restrictive legislation effectively silenced Black opposition through bannings, arrests, and the imprisonment of leaders. South Africa's economy grew and benefited White South Africans. For Black South Africans, however, the suffering continued.

Ironically, the seeds of Black resistance in the 1960s could be found at the ‘bush campuses’, like those at the University of the North and Zululand University. These institutions, created under the Extension of the University Education Act, Act 45 of 1959, became the breeding ground of Black resistance that was to become a force in the 1970s. Influenced by the American Black Power movement, the likes of Malcolm X, and closer to home by Frantz Fanon, Kenneth Kaunda, Julius Nyere and Kwame Nkrumah, a new framework of student thinking emerged. In South Africa, it was the late Anthony Lembede's Africanism that was a crucial influence in these universities.

Biko’s ideas became the major rallying point behind a pressure group that became known in South Africa as the BCM. From 17 years of age, up until his death on 12 September 1977, Biko had an illustrious political career spanning about 14 years. He came into the political limelight in 1963, the year that witnessed a rise in the Poqo-led unrest in his home area. Poqo was the armed wing of the PAC, similar to the armed wing of the ANC, Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK, or “Spear of the Nation”).

Biko had just entered Lovedale College when his brother was arrested and jailed on suspicion of outlawed Poqo activity. He was interrogated by the police and subsequently expelled. This marked the beginning of Biko’s resentment against white authority. In 1964, he went to Marianhill in Natal (now KwaZulu-Natal) and attended a private Roman Catholic school, Saint Francis College. Although he found meaning in Christian principles, Biko, who was an articulate young man, resented the influence of whites thought on determining an African’s future.

As an advocate of the Black Consciousness (BC) philosophy - together with other literate Africans residing in the major urban centres - Biko developed into a highly respected intellectual in the 1960s. Biko began his search for self-identity, and hoped to build up the pride of Black culture - a culture that was scornfully viewed by the settler regime. Biko and his student colleagues had been receptive to the political ideas expressed by many Black intellectuals, and learned to use the emotional power of the message of Black Consciousness.

As a result, these ideas and slogans filtered down to a much broader group of socially underprivileged people, who were angry and impatient for meaningful action. This restructured consciousness emerged among students, beginning with those at Fort Hare and later the Durban Medical School (Natal University). These students constituted the new African petty bourgeoisie class."

Last updated : 31-Aug-2017

This article was produced for South African History Online on 10-Jun-2011


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Excerpt #3:
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Consciousness_Movement#Related_groups

Note: This excerpt doesn’t include any content from these two significant sub-sections of this page: "Early years: 1960–76" and “The Soweto uprising and after: 1976–present"

“The Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) was a grassroots anti-Apartheid activist movement that emerged in South Africa in the mid-1960s out of the political vacuum created by the jailing and banning of the African National Congress and Pan Africanist Congress leadership after the Sharpeville Massacre in 1960.[1] The BCM represented a social movement for political consciousness.

[...]

History
The Black Consciousness Movement started to develop during the late 1960s, and was led by Steve Biko, a black medical student, and Barney Pityana. During this period, which overlapped with Apartheid, the ANC had committed to an armed struggle through its military wing Umkhonto we Sizwe, but this small guerrilla army was neither able to seize and hold territory in South Africa nor to win significant concessions through its efforts. The ANC had been banned by Apartheid leaders, and although the famed Freedom Charter remained in circulation in spite of attempts to censor it, for many students, the ANC had disappeared.

[...]

The term Black Consciousness stems from American educator W. E. B. Du Bois's evaluation of the double consciousness of American blacks being taught what they feel inside to be lies about the weakness and cowardice of their race. Du Bois echoed Civil War era black nationalist Martin Delany's insistence that black people take pride in their blackness as an important step in their personal liberation. This line of thought was also reflected in the Pan-Africanist, Marcus Garvey, as well as Harlem Renaissance philosopher Alain Locke and in the salons of the sisters, Paulette and Jane Nardal in Paris.[3] Biko's understanding of these thinkers was further shaped through the lens of postcolonial thinkers such as Frantz Fanon, Léopold Senghor, and Aimé Césaire. Biko reflects the concern for the existential struggle of the black person as a human being, dignified and proud of his blackness, in spite of the oppression of colonialism. The aim of this global movement of black thinkers was to build black consciousness and African consciousness, which they felt had been suppressed under colonialism.[4]

Part of the insight of the Black Consciousness Movement was in understanding that black liberation would not only come from imagining and fighting for structural political changes, as older movements like the ANC [African National Congress] did, but also from psychological transformation in the minds of black people themselves. This analysis suggested that to take power, black people had to believe in the value of their blackness. That is, if black people believed in democracy, but did not believe in their own value, they would not truly be committed to gaining power.[5]

[...]

...along with political action, a major component of the Black Consciousness Movement was its Black Community Programs, which included the organisation of community medical clinics, aiding entrepreneurs, and holding "consciousness" classes and adult education literacy classes.

Another important component of psychological liberation was to embrace blackness by insisting that black people lead movements of black liberation. This meant rejecting the fervent "non-racialism" of the ANC in favour of asking whites to understand and support, but not to take leadership in, the Black Consciousness Movement. A parallel can be seen in the United States, where student leaders of later phases of SNCC, and black nationalists such as Malcolm X, rejected white participation in organisations that intended to build black power. While the ANC viewed white participation in its struggle as part of enacting the non-racial future for which it was fighting, the Black Consciousness view was that even well-intentioned white people often re-enacted the paternalism of the society in which they lived. This view held that in a profoundly racialised society, black people had to first liberate themselves and gain psychological, physical and political power for themselves before "non-racial" organisations could truly be non-racial.

Biko's BCM had much in common with other left-wing African nationalist movements of the time, such as Amílcar Cabral's PAIGC and Huey Newton's Black Panther Party.

[...]

Controversies and criticism
Criticisms of the Movement sometimes mirror similar observations of the Black Consciousness Movement in the United States.[19] On one side, it was argued that the Movement would stagnate into black racialism, aggravate racial tensions and attract repression by the apartheid regime. Further, the objective of the Movement was to perpetuate a racial divide – apartheid for the Blacks, equivalent to that which existed under the National Party rule. Other detractors thought the Movement-based heavily on student idealism, but with little grassroots support among the masses, and few consistent links to the mass trade-union movement.[18]

Assessments of the movement[20] note that it failed to achieve several of its key objectives. It did not bring down the apartheid regime, nor did its appeal to other non-white groups as "people of color" gain much traction. Its focus on blackness as the major organising principle was very much downplayed by Nelson Mandela and his successors who to the contrary emphasised the multi-racial balance needed for the post-apartheid nation. The community programs fostered by the movement were very small in scope and were subordinated to the demands of protest and indoctrination. Its leadership and structure was essentially liquidated, and it failed to bridge the tribal gap in any *large-scale* way, although certainly small groups and individuals collaborated across tribes.

After much blood shed and property destroyed, critics charged that the Movement did nothing more than raise "awareness" of some issues, while accomplishing little in the way of sustained mass organisation, or of practical benefit for the masses. Some detractors also assert that Black consciousness ideas are out-dated, hindering the new multi-racial South Africa.[21]

[...]

Defenses of the Black Consciousness Movement
Defenders of the BCM by contrast held that charges of impracticality failed to grasp the universal power of an idea – the idea of freedom and liberation for blacks. This was Biko's reply to many of the Movement's critics. Indeed, Biko rejected the "practicality" charge as an example of the compromises that hindered and delayed black liberation, saying in 1977: "We have been successful to the extent that we have diminished the element of fear in the minds of black people."[18]

Defenders of the movement argued that blackness was the best, most energetic organising principle that was available at the time, in contrast to laborious legal, non-violent and petition based integrationist approach used by white dominated moderate groups.

Biko made no bones about the 'consciousness' aspect of the movement and in this limited respect he is similar to Huey P. Newton of the Black Panthers in the United States. What was important to Biko and other leaders, was not creating yet another political party or group squabbling over local spoils, but a fundamental mobilisation and change in attitude and outlook of the black oppressed and destitute. Some contemporary BCM leaders claim that its principles are currently relevant and decry what they see as evidence of 'sellout' in the new South Africa. (See AZAPO reference below).

[...]

Black Consciousness in literature
...In comparison with the Black Power movement in the United States, the Black Consciousness movement felt little need to reconstruct any sort of golden cultural heritage. African linguistic and cultural traditions were alive and well in the country. Short stories published predominantly in Drum magazine had led to the 1950s being called the Drum decade, and future Nobel Prize winner Nadine Gordimer was beginning to become active. The fallout from the Sharpeville massacre led to many of those artists entering exile, but the political oppression of the resistance itself led to a new growth of black South African Literature. In the 1970s, Staffrider magazine became the dominant forum for the publication of BC literature, mostly in the form of poetry and short stories. Book clubs, youth associations, and clandestine street-to-street exchange became popular. Various authors explored the Soweto riots in novels, including Miriam Tlali, Mothobi Mutloatse and Mbulelo Mzamane. But the most compelling force in Black Consciousness prose was the short story, now adapted to teach political morals. Mtutuzeli Matshoba famously wrote, "Do not say to me that I am a man." An important theme of Black Consciousness literature was the rediscovery of the ordinary, which can be used to describe the work of Njabulo Ndebele.[24]

However, it was in poetry that the Black Consciousness Movement first found its voice. In a sense, this was a modern update of an old tradition, since several of South Africa's African languages had long traditions of performed poetry.

[...]

A main tenet of the Black Consciousness Movement itself was the development of black culture, and thus black literature. The cleavages in South African society were real, and the poets and writers of the BCM saw themselves as spokespersons for blacks in the country. They refused to be beholden to proper grammar and style, searching for black aesthetics and black literary values.[24] The attempt to awaken a black cultural identity was thus inextricably tied up with the development of black literature.”...

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Excerpts From Three Online Articles About "Négritude"

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post presents excerpts from three online articles about the "Négritude".

The content of this post is presented for historical, socio-cultural, and educational purposes.

I quote excerpts of articles to point out those articles to this blog's readers. I encourage you to read these entire articles.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post.

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EXCERPTS ABOUT NEGRITUDE
These excerpts are given in no particular order and are numbered for referencing purposes only.

Excerpt #1:
From http://exhibitions.nypl.org/africanaage/essay-negritude.html "Négritude"
[written by] Bertrade Ngo-Ngijol Banoum –Lehman College

"Négritude is a cultural movement launched in 1930s Paris by French-speaking black graduate students from France's colonies in Africa and the Caribbean territories. These black intellectuals converged around issues of race identity and black internationalist initiatives to combat French imperialism. They found solidarity in their common ideal of affirming pride in their shared black identity and African heritage, and reclaiming African self-determination, self–reliance, and self–respect. The Négritude movement signaled an awakening of race consciousness for blacks in Africa and the African Diaspora. This new race consciousness, rooted in a (re)discovery of the authentic self, sparked a collective condemnation of Western domination, anti-black racism, enslavement, and colonization of black people. It sought to dispel denigrating myths and stereotypes linked to black people, by acknowledging their culture, history, and achievements, as well as reclaiming their contributions to the world and restoring their rightful place within the global community.

The Roots of Négritude
The movement is deeply rooted in Pan-African congresses, exhibitions, organizations, and publications produced to challenge the theory of race hierarchy and black inferiority developed by philosophers such as Friedrich Hegel and Joseph de Gobineau. Diverse thinkers influenced this rehabilitation process, including anthropologists Leo Frobenius and Maurice Delafosse, who wrote on Africa; colonial administrator René Maran, who penned the seminal ethnographic novel Batouala: Véritable roman négre, an eyewitness account of abuses and injustices within the French colonial system; André Breton, the father of Surrealism; French romantics Arthur Rimbaud and Charles Baudelaire; Haitian Jean-Price Mars, who developed the concept of Indigenism; Haitian anthropologist Anténor Firmin and Cuban Nicolás Guillén, who promoted Negrismo.

Of major significance are the Harlem Renaissance intellectuals who fled to France to escape racism and segregation in the United States. Prominent among them were Langston Hughes, James Weldon Johnson, Richard Wright, and Claude McKay. McKay, who bemoaned divisions of blacks, was acclaimed by Senegalese poet and politician Léopold Sédar Senghor as the spiritual founder of Négritude values. Senghor argued that "far from seeing in one's blackness inferiority, one accepts it; one lays claim to it with pride; one cultivates it lovingly." Pan-Africanist leader Marcus Garvey similarly implored his peers: "Negroes, teach your children that they are direct descendants of the greatest and proudest race who ever peopled the earth."...

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Excerpt #2:
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N%C3%A9gritude
"Négritude is a framework of critique and literary theory, developed mainly by francophone intellectuals, writers, and politicians of the African diaspora during the 1930s. Its initiators included Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, Léopold Sédar Senghor (the first President of Senegal), and Léon Damas of French Guiana. Négritude intellectuals disavowed colonialism, and argued for the importance of a Pan-African racial identity among people of African descent worldwide.

[...]

Etymology
The term négritude is a construction which appropriates the derogatory word niger, used to refer to people (in French) as nègre, so largely used exclusively in a racist context. The movement's use of the word négritude is a way of re-imagining the word as an emic form of empowerment. The term was first used in its present sense by Césaire, in the third issue of L'Étudiant noir, a magazine which he had started in Paris with fellow students Léopold Senghor and Léon Damas, as well as Gilbert Gratiant, Leonard Sainville, Louis T. Achille, Aristide Maugée, and Paulette Nardal. L'Étudiant noir also includes Césaire's first published work, Conscience Raciale et Révolution Sociale with the heading "Les Idées" and the rubric "Négreries", which is notable for its disavowal of assimilation as a valid strategy for resistance and for its use of the word nègre as a positive term. The problem with assimilation was that one assimilated into a culture that considered African culture to be barbaric and unworthy of being seen as "civilized". The assimilation into this culture would have been seen as an implicit acceptance of this view. Nègre previously had been used mainly in a pejorative sense. Césaire deliberately incorporated this derogatory word into the name of his philosophy.

Influences
In 1885, Haitian anthropologist Anténor Firmin published an early work De l'Égalité des Races Humaines (On the Equality of Human Races), which was published as a rebuttal to French writer Count Arthur de Gobineau's Essai sur l'inegalite des Races Humaines (An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races). Firmin influenced Jean Price-Mars, the initiator of Haitian ethnology and developer of the concept of Indigenism, and 20th-century American anthropologist Melville Herskovits.[1] Black intellectuals have historically been proud of Haiti due to its slave revolution commanded by Toussaint L'Ouverture during the 1790s. Césaire spoke, thus, of Haiti as being "where négritude stood up for the first time".
Other diverse thinkers include Charles Baudelaire, André Breton, René Maran, and Arthur Rimbaud.[2]
The Harlem Renaissance, a literary style developed in Harlem in Manhattan during the 1920s and 1930s, influenced the Negritude philosophy.[3] The Harlem Renaissance's writers, including Langston Hughes and Richard Wright, addressed the themes of "noireism" and race relations.

Development during the 20th century
During the 1920s and 1930s, a group of young black students and scholars, primarily from France's colonies and territories, assembled in Paris. There they were introduced to some writers of the Harlem Renaissance by Paulette Nardal and her sister Jane. The Nardal sisters contributed to the Negritude discussions by their writings and by being the proprietors of the Clamart Salon, a tea-shop venue of the French-Black intelligentsia where Negritude philosophy was often discussed. Paulette Nardal and the Haitian Dr. Leo Sajou initiated La revue du Monde Noir (1931–32), a literary journal published in English and French, which attempted to appeal to African and Caribbean intellectuals in Paris. This Harlem association was shared by the parallel development of negrismo in the Spanish-speaking Caribbean region.

[...]

Césaire was a poet, playwright, and politician from Martinique. He studied in Paris, where he discovered the black community and "rediscovered Africa". He saw la Négritude as the fact of being black, acceptance of this fact, and appreciation of the history and culture, and of black people. It is important to note that for Césaire, this emphasis on the acceptance of the fact of "blackness" was the means by which the "decolonization of the mind" could be achieved. According to him, western imperialism was responsible for the inferiority complex of blacks. He sought to recognize the collective colonial experience of Blacks—the slave trade and plantation system. Césaire's ideology was especially important during the early years of la Négritude.”

[...]

Reception
In 1948, Jean-Paul Sartre analyzed the négritude philosophy in an essay called "Orphée Noir" ("Black Orpheus")[5] that served as the introduction to a volume of francophone poetry named Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache, compiled by Léopold Senghor. In this essay, Sartre characterizes négritude as the opposite of colonial racism in a Hegelian dialectic and with it he helped to introduce Négritude issues to French intellectuals. In his opinion, négritude was an "anti-racist racism" (racisme antiracist), a strategy with a final goal of racial unity.
Négritude was criticized by some black writers during the 1960s as insufficiently militant. Keorapetse Kgositsile said that the term Négritude was based too much on blackness according to a caucasian aesthetic, and was unable to define a new kind of perception of African-ness that would free black people and black art from caucasian conceptualizations altogether.

The Nigerian dramatist, poet, and novelist Wole Soyinka opposed Négritude. He believed that by deliberately and outspokenly being proud of their ethnicity, black people were automatically on the defensive: "Un tigre ne proclame pas sa tigritude, il saute sur sa proie" (French: A tiger doesn't proclaim its tigerness; it jumps on its prey).

After a long period of silence there has been a renaissance of Negritude developed by scholars such as Souleymane Bachir Diagne (Columbia), Donna Jones (Berkeley),[6] and Cheikh Thiam (Ohio State) who all continue the work of Abiola Irele. Cheikh Thiam's book is the only book-length study of Negritude as philosophy. It develops Diagne's reading of Negritude as a philosophy of art, and Jones' presentation of Negritude as a lebensphilosophie.
-snip-
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lebensphilosophie
"Lebensphilosophie ("philosophy of life" or life-philosophy in German) is a philosophical school of thought which emphasises the meaning, value and purpose of life as the foremost focus of philosophy.[1]"

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Excerpt #3:
From http://www.blackpast.org/gah/negritude-movement
Contributor:
Micklin, Anna T.
The Evergreen State College
"The literary movement, Negritude, was born out of the Paris intellectual environment of 1930s and 1940s. It is a product of black writers joining together through the French language to assert their cultural identity.

Aimé Césaire was the first to coin the word in his epic poem, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal, declaring “my negritude is not a stone, its deafness hurled against the clamor of the day” but instead, his negritude “takes root in the ardent flesh of the soil.” Together with Césaire, Léon Damas and Léopold Sédar Senghor created poetry that would make a definition for Negritude. The best-known Negritude works from these poets were Damas’ Pigments, Senghor’s Hosties noire and Chants d’ombre, and Césaire’s Cahier. These poets were brought together in the creation of the journal, L’Etudiant noire.

L’Etudiant noire responded to similar black journals in Paris at the time. Césaire and Senghor thought the West-Indian journal, Légitime defense, was too assimilationist and they found the Nardal sisters’ journal, Revue du monde noir, too bourgeois to truly represent the French-speaking black experience. Despite being a separate tract from these journals, L’Etudiant noire would not have been possible if the Nardal sisters and Légitime défense hadn’t created an environment in Paris for black intellectualism.

[...]

Negritude responded to the alienated position of blacks in history. The movement asserted an identity for black people around the world that was their own. For Césaire and Damas, from Martinique and French Guiana, the rupture from Africa through the Atlantic Slave Trade was a great part of their cultural understanding. Their work told of the frustration and loss of their motherland. For Senegalese Senghor, his works focused more on African traditionalism. In ways the assertion of each poet diverges from each other, but the combination of different perspectives is also what fueled and fed Negritude.

From a political standpoint, Negritude was an important aspect to the rejection of colonialism. Emerging at the cusp of African independence movements, Negritude made an impact on how the colonized viewed themselves. It also sparked and fed off of subsequent literary movements that were responding to global politics....

There is no clear end date to the movement, and some literary critics say that it still continues today, in any artistic expression asserting black identity."

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Friday, November 17, 2017

Five Videos About Afro Costa Ricans (information, videos, comments)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post provides information about Afro Costa Ricans and showcases five YouTube videos about Afro Costa Ricans in Puerto Limón, Costa Rica.

Selected comments from one of these videos' discussion threads are also included in this post.

The content of this post is presented for cultural and educational purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are featured in these videos and all those who are quoted in this post. Thanks also to the publishers of these videos on YouTube.

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INFORMATION ABOUT AFRO-COSTA RICANS
From http://minorityrights.org/minorities/afro-costa-ricans/
"The Spanish began to ship Africans to Costa Rica in the 1500s to substitute for indigenous labour. Most of this initial group eventually became part of the mestizo population.

A second wave began arriving in the 18th century from the Caribbean as free seasonal tortoiseshell fishermen. Subsequently they brought their families to the the Caribbean Talamanca Coast and created self-sufficient farming/fishing and /trading communities that included their own schools. They maintained relations with Jamaica and had little or no contact with the Pacific coast.

The main influx of Afro-Costa Ricans arrived, in the 1890s, as migrant workers from the Caribbean. They were initially involved in the construction of the railroad from the Central Plateau to the Caribbean coast port of Limon. They stayed on to work on the banana plantations and enclaves of the United Fruit Company (UFC now Dole). In the early 20th century few Afro-Costa Ricans travelled to the capital and they retained their English Creole language and culture.

In the 1970s crop disease brought an end to Atlantic Coast cacao cultivation. Fledgling Afro-Costa Rican agricultural prosperity declined along with the end of the country's cacao industry.

Many Afro-Costa Ricans migrated abroad or to the cities and gradually adapted to Costa Rican society. Some remained in the Limon area mostly finding work at the port but this opportunity shrunk significantly with the advent of containerized systems and port privatization.

Currently most of the Afro-Costa Rican population lives in small communities within the Caribbean Coast Province of Limon. In the City of Limón, where a third of the population is Afro-Costa Rican, the community has remained separate in barrios which are 90 per cent black. In the rest of the country, considerable ethnic mixing has taken place. In Limón, Creole English remains the dominant language, although the new generation is bilingual since they receive Spanish-language education.

Despite political participation (since 1949), the economic position of Afro-Costa Ricans has changed little. A small minority have achieved financial success (mostly as professionals) and increasingly become involved in national politics notably Epsy Barr-Campbell former head of the Afro-Costa Rican women's NGO, and president of the Citizen Action Party (PAC).

Afro Costa Rican areas traditionally receive much less investment than the rest of the country. Limon is ranked as the second most disadvantaged province in the country."...

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Additional information and comments about Afro Costa Ricans are included in some of these featured videos, in a quote that is given after Video # 4, and in selected comments from the discussion thread for Video #5.

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SHOWCASE VIDEOS
Example #1: Afro Costa Ricans


unique5589, Published on Sep 16, 2010

This video is about the African presence in Costa Rica. It includes a brief history of Afro Costa Ricans and famous Afro Costa Ricans. It is in English and Spanish.

The term Afro Costa Rican is referring to someone of African living in and/or from Costa Rica and/or having roots in Costa Rica. Of course, African descendants have other roots and lineages too.
All comments that I find offensive, racist, stereotypical and negative will not be approved. Please be respectful.

It should be noted that many persons of African descent in "Latin" America and the Caribbean do not refer to themselves as, "Afro + nationality" but either as "negros", "afrodescendiente" or by their nationality.

Please visit http://www.afrolatinos.tv/ to see more images of Afro Costa Ricans.

Thanks Unique5589

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Example #2: DÍA DEL NEGRO PUERTO LIMÓN 31-8-2011.mp4 [Africans Day (in) Puerto Limón]



Carvajaleventoslimon, Published on Sep 9, 2011

Lindo desfile del día del negro se llevó a cabo en las calles céntricas de la ciudad de Limón, buena organización, muy colorido, mucha participación y bien ordenado, felicidades a los organizadores.
-snip-
Google translate from Spanish to English:

Cute parade of the day of the black took place in the downtown streets of the city of Limón, good organization, very colorful, lots of participation and well ordered, congratulations to the organizers.

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Example #3: CARNAVALES LIMON FERRETERIA KIN BAILE 3



Ferreteriakin, Published on Oct 26, 2012

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Example #4: LOS PAYASOS [The Clowns]



Carvajaleventoslimon, Published on Oct 17, 2013

Los tradicionales PAYASOS, SIGLO 21.Octubre 17, 2013. Puerto Limón Costa Rica.
-snip-
Here's an excerpt about the payasos carnival tradition in Puerto Limón Costa Rica:
From https://bishopstravels.wordpress.com/tag/black-history-in-puerto-limon/ Its Carnaval Time in Costa Rica!!!!

Posted on October 18, 2013 by Bishop The Eastside Nappyhead
..."The Puerto Limon Carnaval was so different. Puerto Limon is a small city on the Caribbean side of Costa Rica and home to an Afro-Caribbean Costa Rican population. Many of the black people there speak english as a result of immigration from the Caribbean Islands in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Immigrants went to Costa Rica to work on the banana plantations, turtle fishing and constructing railroads. Many stayed in Costa Rica and bought a long with them a Caribbean way of life in regards to music, dance, food, language and celebrations. The Carnaval lasts all week, starting with with what they call “los payasos” -clowns it seems like local youth run around in strange costumes after a loud song goes off…hitting people and running again. The atmosphere is very exciting and extremely colorful in the backdrop of this Caribbean Central American city."

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Example #5: LIMON, COSTA RICA: BLACK PEOPLE IN CENTRAL AMERICA



Damien M., Published on Jun 1, 2013
-snip-
Here are selected comments from this video's discussion thread. These comments are numbered for referencing purposes only:
1. XaishaMonae, 2014
..."Quick question, do the people in Limon mostly speak spanish or patois?"

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Reply
2. Damien M., 2013
"+XaishaMonae Its about 60/40 patois/spanish depending on who they're talking to. If they're amongst themselves u may hear alot of patois.. but in commercial places of business it will be spanish. They Take pride in being African descendants so they don't talk spanish all the time.."

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3. Derwin King, 2015
"Hello sir, I am currently living in Heredia and studying at La Universidad Nacional. I agree that Limon is isolated. It is referred to in a way that makes it seem like a separate entity. People have cautioned me about the safety there as well. I believe that the issue with racism in this country is that people pretend it doesn't exist altogether, so the issues that do exist (however small they are in comparison to the US) are not addressed or solved. People consider the hiked up foreign prices to be a form of racism (which is an ill-informed and incorrect opinion) but I think that's a result of Costa Ricans feeling an intense Big Brother-like omnipresence from the United States. Afro Costa Ricans are still subjected to forms of racism whether implicit or explicit. Thankfully, they are not experiencing it on the murderous level that African Americans do in the US. It's still an issue though."

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Reply
4. tanya mullings, 2017
"There is propaganda against limon, but its a very safe place and a very important turistic point"
-snip-
In another comment, tanya mullings wrote that is “n another comment, this

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5. yorsha100, 2017
"Let us clarify a little the history of the arrival of the black people to Costa Rica.There are two moments in history which are different periods. In the first moment they arrived like African slaves brought by the Spaniards during the period of conquest and period of the colony also came brown people product of the mixture of the Spanish with the African slave these arrived like free. This is around the year 1561. The majority of these slaves were established in the province of Guanacaste working on the cattle ranches. Others were established in Cartago. By 1650 the Puebla de los Pardos was created in order to reduce the territory to mulattos, free blacks and browns because of discrimination. Historians report that these groups continued to generate mix and came a time where the black person was no longer evident because of such a mix. I am opening a parenthesis here according to a genetic study that was carried out on the genetic composition of the Costa Rican individual of the Central Valley that is considered white people but in reality in their great majority they are product of the mixture, these have 4.6% of African lineage. The second moment occurs with the construction of the railroad to the Atlantic in the late nineteenth century, arriving the first Jamaican black people around the year 1870 to our Caribbean coast they arrived as free since slavery had been abolished in Jamaica around the year 1834. Black people arrived most of them from Jamaica, from other islands such as Trinidad, Haiti, Saint Lucia and the Bahamas. Although there was a first moment with the African slaves, the black people of the second moment consolidate the Afro-descendant presence in Our country establishing its culture and the characteristics that define it."

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6. BrooklynSpanishTchr, 2017
"This is great. Thank you. I lived in Costa Rica for four years and now teach Spanish (middle school). My students have so much trouble understanding that racism exists elsewhere and that there are Black populations outside of the US. I plan on using your video to start dialogs in my class!"

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